Easton's Bible Dictionary: M. G. Easton, M.A., D.D.


  1. Heb.hemah, "heat," the poison of certain venomous reptiles (Dt. 32:24, 33; Job 6:4; Ps. 58:4), causing inflammation.
  2. Heb.rosh, "a head," a poisonous plant (Dt. 29:18), growing luxuriantly (Hos. 10:4), of a bitter taste (Ps. 69:21; Lam. 3:5), and coupled with wormwood; probably the poppy. This word is rendered "gall", q.v., (Dt. 29:18, 32:33; Ps. 69:21; Jer. 8:14, etc.), "hemlock" (Hos. 10:4; Amos 6:12), and "poison" (Job 20:16), "the poison of asps," showing that the rosh was not exclusively a vegetable poison.
  3. In Rom. 3:13 (comp. Job 20:16; Ps. 140:3), Jas. 3:8, as the rendering of the Greek ios.

Original from The Bible Foundation - bf.org. They claim public domain status for their original text.