Prayer presupposes a belief in the personality of God, his ability and willingness to hold intercourse with us, his personal control of all things and of all his creatures and all their actions.
Acceptable prayer must be sincere (Heb. 10:22), offered with reverence and godly fear, with a humble sense of our own insignificance as creatures and of our own unworthiness as sinners, with earnest importunity, and with unhesitating submission to the divine will. Prayer must also be offered in the faith that God is, and is the hearer and answerer of prayer, and that he will fulfil his word, "Ask, and ye shall receive" (Mt. 7:7,8, 21:22; Mk. 11:24; Jn. 14:13,14), and in the name of Christ (16:23,24, 15:16; Eph. 2:18, 5:20; Col. 3:17; 1 Pet. 2:5).
Prayer is of different kinds, secret (Mt. 6:6); social, as family prayers, and in social worship; and public, in the service of the sanctuary.
Intercessory prayer is enjoined (Num. 6:23; Job 42:8; Isa. 62:6; Ps. 122:6; 1 Tim. 2:1; Jas. 5:14), and there are many instances on record of answers having been given to such prayers, e.g., of Abraham (Gen. 17:18, 20, 18:23-32, 20:7, 17,18), of Moses for Pharaoh (Ex. 8:12,13, 30,31; Ex. 9:33), for the Israelites (Ex. 17:11, 13, 32:11-14, 31-34; Num. 21:7,8; Dt. 9:18,19, 25), for Miriam (Num. 12:13), for Aaron (Dt. 9:20), of Samuel (1 Sam. 7:5-12), of Solomon (1 Ki. 8; 2 Chr. 6), Elijah (1 Ki. 17:20-23), Elisha (2 Ki. 4:33-36), Isaiah (2 Ki. 19), Jeremiah (Jer. 42:2-10), Peter (Acts 9:40), the church (12:5-12), Paul (28:8).
No rules are anywhere in Scripture laid down for the manner of prayer or the attitude to be assumed by the suppliant. There is mention made of kneeling in prayer (1 Ki. 8:54; 2 Chr. 6:13; Ps. 95:6; Isa. 45:23; Lk. 22:41; Acts 7:60, 9:40; Eph. 3:14, etc.); of bowing and falling prostrate (Gen. 24:26, 52; Ex. 4:31, 12:27; Mt. 26:39; Mk. 14:35, etc.); of spreading out the hands (1 Ki. 8:22, 38, 54; Ps. 28:2, 63:4, 88:9; 1 Tim. 2:8, etc.); and of standing (1 Sam. 1:26; 1 Ki. 8:14, 55; 2 Chr. 20:9; Mk. 11:25; Lk. 18:11, 13).
If we except the "Lord's Prayer" (Mt. 6:9-13), which is, however, rather a model or pattern of prayer than a set prayer to be offered up, we have no special form of prayer for general use given us in Scripture.
Prayer is frequently enjoined in Scripture (Ex. 22:23, 27; 1 Ki. 3:5; 2 Chr. 7:14; Ps. 37:4; Isa. 55:6; Joel 2:32; Ezek. 36:37, etc.), and we have very many testimonies that it has been answered (Ps. 3:4, 4:1, 6:8, 18:6, 28:6, 30:2, 34:4, 118:5; Jas. 5:16-18, etc.).
"Abraham's servant prayed to God, and God directed him to the person who should be wife to his master's son and heir (Gen. 24:10-20).
"Jacob prayed to God, and God inclined the heart of his irritated brother, so that they met in peace and friendship (Gen. 32:24-30, 33:1-4).
"Samson prayed to God, and God showed him a well where he quenched his burning thirst, and so lived to judge Israel (Judg. 15:18-20).
"David prayed, and God defeated the counsel of Ahithophel (2 Sam. 15:31, 16:20-23, 17:14-23).
"Daniel prayed, and God enabled him both to tell Nebuchadnezzar his dream and to give the interpretation of it (Dan. 2:16-23).
"Nehemiah prayed, and God inclined the heart of the king of Persia to grant him leave of absence to visit and rebuild Jerusalem (Neh. 1:11, 2:1-6).
"Esther and Mordecai prayed, and God defeated the purpose of Haman, and saved the Jews from destruction (Esther 4:15-17, 6:7,8).
"The believers in Jerusalem prayed, and God opened the prison doors and set Peter at liberty, when Herod had resolved upon his death (Acts 12:1-12).
"Paul prayed that the thorn in the flesh might be removed, and his prayer brought a large increase of spiritual strength, while the thorn perhaps remained (2 Cor. 12:7-10).
"Prayer is like the dove that Noah sent forth, which blessed him not only when it returned with an olive-leaf in its mouth, but when it never returned at all.", Robinson's Job.