Easton's Bible Dictionary: M. G. Easton, M.A., D.D.


  1. Chald. attun, a large furnace with a wide open mouth, at the top of which materials were cast in (Dan. 3:22,23; comp. Jer. 29:22). This furnace would be in constant requisition, for the Babylonians disposed of their dead by cremation, as did also the Accadians who invaded Mesopotamia.
  2. Heb. kibshan, a smelting furnace (Gen. 19:28), also a lime-kiln (Isa. 33:12; Amos 2:1).
  3. Heb. kur, a refining furnace (Pr. 17:3, 27:21; Ezek. 22:18).
  4. Heb. alil, a crucible; only used in Ps. 12:6.
  5. Heb. tannur, oven for baking bread (Gen. 15:17; Isa. 31:9; Neh. 3:11). It was a large pot, narrowing towards the top. When it was heated by a fire made within, the dough was spread over the heated surface, and thus was baked. "A smoking furnace and a burning lamp" (Gen. 15:17), the symbol of the presence of the Almighty, passed between the divided pieces of Abraham's sacrifice in ratification of the covenant God made with him.
  6. Gr.kamnos, a furnace, kiln, or oven (Mt. 13:42, 50; Rev. 1:15, 9:2).

Original from The Bible Foundation - bf.org. They claim public domain status for their original text.